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Последние минуты "Розетты"


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Последние минуты "Розетты"

Вот и подошла к концу миссия “Розетты”. Чем она запомнилась? Почему и как аппарат прекратил работу?

Миссия завершилась в пятницу 30 сентября. Космический аппарат медленно упал на комету Чурюмова-Герасименко. Изучение этого небесного тела, открытого в 1969 году из Киева Климом Чурюмовым, и было основной целью этой миссии Европейского космического агентства. У кометы “Розетта” провела последние два года.

Европейское космическое агентство обнародовало последнее фото “Розетты” перед ее приземлением на комету Чурюмова-Герасименко. Небесное тело снято с расстояния 51 м.

https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CtmaiDqXYAAyrY3.jpg

Европейское космическое агентство подтвердило, что “Розетта” упала на комету.

“Розетта” была запущена Европейским космическим агентством в марте 2004 года. К комете Чурюмова-Герасименко зонд приблизился спустя чуть более 10 лет. Это время “Розетта” использовала для того для разгона до нужной скорости. Она также должна была попасть на правильный маршрут, чтобы получить возможность следить за кометой на солнечной орбите.

Миссия “Розетты” – первая в истории “встреча” с кометой, она предоставляла ученым уникальную информацию. Зонд сопровождал небесное тело, когда оно вращалось вокруг солнца.

“Розетта” никогда ранее не приближалась к комете ближе чем на 1,9 километров. После посадки аппарата на “пожизненную парковку” ученые все еще рассчитывают получать от “Розетты” полезную информацию. Они надеются держать с зондом связь как можно дольше. Первые подробные фотографии кометы уже были получены прямо перед падением аппарата.

“Розетта” не умеет приземляться, поэтому скорее всего разбилась при посадке. Остатки зонда останутся на комете, забрать их оттуда невозможно.

Если после падения на комету связь с “Розеттой» не будет потеряна сразу, миссия все равно уже считается завершенной: комета Чурюмова-Герасименко удаляется от солнца, солнечные батареи космического аппарата вскоре будут разряжены.

Кому нужна комета?

Изучение комет — небольших космических тел, вращающихся вокруг Солнца — считается одной из приоритетных задач в исследовании космоса: согласно многим теориям, кометы оказали огромное влияние на формирование облика Земли и возникновение жизни на ней. В частности, существует теория, что именно кометы занесли на Землю воду, без которой существование белковой жизни невозможно.

Первой кометой, которая подверглась пристальному изучению с помощью космических аппаратов, стала комета Галлея, пролетавшая мимо Земли в 1986 году. К ней отправились сразу несколько зондов из СССР, Японии и Европы.

Многие вопросы однако остались нераскрытыми — требовались образцы кометного вещества, взятого прямо из ядра.

Уже в начале 90-х в Европейском космическом агентстве заключили, что доставить это вещество обратно на Землю будет слишком дорого — поэтому требовалось разработать план, как максимизировать научную отдачу от невозвращаемой программы.

Было решено использовать комплекс из орбитального и спускаемого аппаратов.

Программа (и орбитальный зонд) получила имя «Розетта» — в честь Розеттского камня, который позволил расшифровать египетские иероглифы. Спускаемый аппарат назвали “Филы” — в честь острова на Ниле, где был найден обелиск, который также помог в этом деле.

Злоключения модуля “Филы”

Первоначально планировалось отправить “Розетту” к другой комете, но помешала авария ракеты-носителя “Ариан” в декабре 2002 года — нужная комета “ушла”.

Заменой стала комета Чурюмова-Герасименко — старт пришлось отложить на 2004 год, и полёт до неё занимал десять лет по сложнейшей траектории с несколькими “гравитационными разгонами”.

По пути “Розетта” исследовала несколько астероидов — и наконец в июле 2014-го впервые “заметила на горизонте” свою цель.


ESA/Rosetta/NavCam

Выяснилось, что ядро кометы имеет сложную форму — как бы составленная из двух частей снежная баба; в ЕКА её окрестили чуть более романтично “резиновым утёнком”. Соответственно бо́льшую часть стали называть “туловищем”, а меньшую — “головой”.

12 ноября состоялась первая в истории мягкая посадка на комету. “Филы” приземлился в заданном месте, но отказали обе системы, которые должны были удерживать аппарат: не сработал реактивный двигатель, прижимающий зонд к комете и не выпустились гарпуны, которые должны были воткнуться в грунт.

У крошечной, по сравнению с другими космическими телами, кометы притяжение не настолько сильное, чтобы гарантированно удержать на себе посадочный аппарат.

Так что модуль “сполз” в тень, где его солнечные батареи не могли работать в полную силу. Но, по крайней мере, не отскочил от поверхности и смог завершить большую часть запланированных экспериментов — это заняло два дня

После этого аппарат “погрузился в спячку” – перешёл в режим энергосбережения и, по большому счёту, больше из него не выходил.
ь.


ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team

“Розетта” всё это время оставалась на орбите, помогая прикометившемуся “напарнику”. В начале сентября 2016 она определила точное местонахождение модуля, что позволило лучше понять снимки, которые ему удалось сделать.

Вместе они ответили на один из главных вопросов миссии: во льдах кометы содержание тяжёлой воды (H2O2) оказалось втрое выше,чем в земных океанах. Так что теория о кометном происхождении воды на нашей планете оказалась сильно подорвана.

Зачем разбивать “Розетту”?

Комета удалилась от Солнца, и мощности солнечных батарей для полноценного функционирования уже не хватает. “Филы” уже отключился. Оба зонда в любом случае будут потеряны; учёные надеются до последнего момента удерживать связь с аппаратом, который до са́мого удара должен будет передавать фотографии поверхности.


ESA/Rosetta/NavCam

Разбить зонд “апкамету” планировалось на пока ещё освещённой стороне “головы” небесного тела, в зоне примерно 500х700 м: более точное наведение в сложившихся условиях было невозможно.

Все материалы euronews о “Розетту” на русском языке можно увидеть по ссылке:
http://ru.euronews.com/tag/rosetta

Последние минуты миссии “Розетты” можно посмотреть здесь:

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a;_.params.slidesPerColumn>1&&(a=Math.floor(_.slides.length/_.params.slidesPerColumn)===_.slides.length/_.params.slidesPerColumn?_.slides.length:Math.ceil(_.slides.length/_.params.slidesPerColumn)*_.params.slidesPerColumn,"auto"!==_.params.slidesPerView&&"row"===_.params.slidesPerColumnFill&&(a=Math.max(a,_.params.slidesPerView*_.params.slidesPerColumn)));var s,l=_.params.slidesPerColumn,u=a/l,c=u-(_.params.slidesPerColumn*u-_.slides.length);for(e=0;e<_.slides.length;e++){s=0;var d=_.slides.eq(e);if(_.params.slidesPerColumn>1){var 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m;if(_.rtl&&_.wrongRTL&&("slide"===_.params.effect||"coverflow"===_.params.effect)&&_.wrapper.css({width:_.virtualSize+_.params.spaceBetween+"px"}),_.support.flexbox&&!_.params.setWrapperSize||(_.isHorizontal()?_.wrapper.css({width:_.virtualSize+_.params.spaceBetween+"px"}):_.wrapper.css({height:_.virtualSize+_.params.spaceBetween+"px"})),_.params.slidesPerColumn>1&&(_.virtualSize=(s+_.params.spaceBetween)*a,_.virtualSize=Math.ceil(_.virtualSize/_.params.slidesPerColumn)-_.params.spaceBetween,_.isHorizontal()?_.wrapper.css({width:_.virtualSize+_.params.spaceBetween+"px"}):_.wrapper.css({height:_.virtualSize+_.params.spaceBetween+"px"}),_.params.centeredSlides)){for(m=[],e=0;e<_.snapGrid.length;e++)_.snapGrid[e]<_.virtualSize+_.snapGrid[0]&&m.push(_.snapGrid[e]);_.snapGrid=m}if(!_.params.centeredSlides){for(m=[],e=0;e<_.snapGrid.length;e++)_.snapGrid[e]<=_.virtualSize-_.size&&m.push(_.snapGrid[e]);_.snapGrid=m,Math.floor(_.virtualSize-_.size)-Math.floor(_.snapGrid[_.snapGrid.length-1])>1&&_.snapGrid.push(_.virtualSize-_.size)}0===_.snapGrid.length&&(_.snapGrid=[0]),0!==_.params.spaceBetween&&(_.isHorizontal()?_.rtl?_.slides.css({marginLeft:t+"px"}):_.slides.css({marginRight:t+"px"}):_.slides.css({marginBottom:t+"px"})),_.params.watchSlidesProgress&&_.updateSlidesOffset()}},_.updateSlidesOffset=function(){for(var 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i=e.prev("."+_.params.slideClass).addClass(_.params.slidePrevClass);if(_.params.loop&&0===i.length&&(i=_.slides.eq(-1),i.addClass(_.params.slidePrevClass)),r.loop&&(n.hasClass(_.params.slideDuplicateClass)?_.wrapper.children("."+_.params.slideClass+":not(."+_.params.slideDuplicateClass+')[data-swiper-slide-index="'+n.attr("data-swiper-slide-index")+'"]').addClass(_.params.slideDuplicateNextClass):_.wrapper.children("."+_.params.slideClass+"."+_.params.slideDuplicateClass+'[data-swiper-slide-index="'+n.attr("data-swiper-slide-index")+'"]').addClass(_.params.slideDuplicateNextClass),i.hasClass(_.params.slideDuplicateClass)?_.wrapper.children("."+_.params.slideClass+":not(."+_.params.slideDuplicateClass+')[data-swiper-slide-index="'+i.attr("data-swiper-slide-index")+'"]').addClass(_.params.slideDuplicatePrevClass):_.wrapper.children("."+_.params.slideClass+"."+_.params.slideDuplicateClass+'[data-swiper-slide-index="'+i.attr("data-swiper-slide-index")+'"]').addClass(_.params.slideDuplicatePrevClass)),_.paginationContainer&&_.paginationContainer.length>0){var 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t=_.params.allowSwipeToPrev,n=_.params.allowSwipeToNext;_.params.allowSwipeToPrev=_.params.allowSwipeToNext=!0,_.updateContainerSize(),_.updateSlidesSize(),("auto"===_.params.slidesPerView||_.params.freeMode||e)&&_.updatePagination(),_.params.scrollbar&&_.scrollbar&&_.scrollbar.set(),_.controller&&_.controller.spline&&(_.controller.spline=void 0);var i=!1;if(_.params.freeMode){var r=Math.min(Math.max(_.translate,_.maxTranslate()),_.minTranslate());_.setWrapperTranslate(r),_.updateActiveIndex(),_.updateClasses(),_.params.autoHeight&&_.updateAutoHeight()}else 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a=t(this);n<_.loopedSlides&&r.push(o),n=e.length-_.loopedSlides&&i.push(o),a.attr("data-swiper-slide-index",n)}),n=0;n=0;n--)_.wrapper.prepend(t(i[n].cloneNode(!0)).addClass(_.params.slideDuplicateClass))},_.destroyLoop=function(){_.wrapper.children("."+_.params.slideClass+"."+_.params.slideDuplicateClass).remove(),_.slides.removeAttr("data-swiper-slide-index")},_.reLoop=function(e){var t=_.activeIndex-_.loopedSlides;_.destroyLoop(),_.createLoop(),_.updateSlidesSize(),e&&_.slideTo(t+_.loopedSlides,0,!1)},_.fixLoop=function(){var e;_.activeIndex<_.loopedSlides?(e=_.slides.length-3*_.loopedSlides+_.activeIndex,e+=_.loopedSlides,_.slideTo(e,0,!1,!0)):("auto"===_.params.slidesPerView&&_.activeIndex>=2*_.loopedSlides||_.activeIndex>_.slides.length-2*_.params.slidesPerView)&&(e=-_.slides.length+_.activeIndex+_.loopedSlides,e+=_.loopedSlides,_.slideTo(e,0,!1,!0))},_.appendSlide=function(e){if(_.params.loop&&_.destroyLoop(),"object"==typeof e&&e.length)for(var t=0;t
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'),s.append(v)),0===y.length&&(y=t('
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t=_.scrollbar;t.isTouched=!0,e.preventDefault(),e.stopPropagation(),t.setDragPosition(e),clearTimeout(t.dragTimeout),t.track.transition(0),_.params.scrollbarHide&&t.track.css("opacity",1),_.wrapper.transition(100),t.drag.transition(100),_.emit("onScrollbarDragStart",_)},dragMove:function(e){var t=_.scrollbar;t.isTouched&&(e.preventDefault?e.preventDefault():e.returnValue=!1,t.setDragPosition(e),_.wrapper.transition(0),t.track.transition(0),t.drag.transition(0),_.emit("onScrollbarDragMove",_))},dragEnd:function(e){var t=_.scrollbar;t.isTouched&&(t.isTouched=!1,_.params.scrollbarHide&&(clearTimeout(t.dragTimeout),t.dragTimeout=setTimeout(function(){t.track.css("opacity",0),t.track.transition(400)},1e3)),_.emit("onScrollbarDragEnd",_),_.params.scrollbarSnapOnRelease&&_.slideReset())},draggableEvents:function(){return _.params.simulateTouch!==!1||_.support.touch?_.touchEvents:_.touchEventsDesktop}(),enableDraggable:function(){var 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t=_.zoom;!_.support.gestures&&("touchend"!==e.type||"touchend"===e.type&&e.changedTouches.length<2)||t.gesture.image&&0!==t.gesture.image.length&&(t.scale=Math.max(Math.min(t.scale,t.gesture.zoomMax),_.params.zoomMin),t.gesture.image.transition(_.params.speed).transform("translate3d(0,0,0) scale("+t.scale+")"),t.currentScale=t.scale,t.isScaling=!1,1===t.scale&&(t.gesture.slide=void 0))},onTouchStart:function(e,t){var n=e.zoom;n.gesture.image&&0!==n.gesture.image.length&&(n.image.isTouched||("android"===e.device.os&&t.preventDefault(),n.image.isTouched=!0,n.image.touchesStart.x="touchstart"===t.type?t.targetTouches[0].pageX:t.pageX,n.image.touchesStart.y="touchstart"===t.type?t.targetTouches[0].pageY:t.pageY))},onTouchMove:function(e){var t=_.zoom;if(t.gesture.image&&0!==t.gesture.image.length&&(_.allowClick=!1,t.image.isTouched&&t.gesture.slide)){t.image.isMoved||(t.image.width=t.gesture.image[0].offsetWidth,t.image.height=t.gesture.image[0].offsetHeight,t.image.startX=_.getTranslate(t.gesture.imageWrap[0],"x")||0,t.image.startY=_.getTranslate(t.gesture.imageWrap[0],"y")||0,t.gesture.slideWidth=t.gesture.slide[0].offsetWidth,t.gesture.slideHeight=t.gesture.slide[0].offsetHeight,t.gesture.imageWrap.transition(0),_.rtl&&(t.image.startX=-t.image.startX),_.rtl&&(t.image.startY=-t.image.startY));var n=t.image.width*t.scale,i=t.image.height*t.scale;if(!(nt.image.touchesStart.x)return void(t.image.isTouched=!1);if(!_.isHorizontal()&&Math.floor(t.image.minY)===Math.floor(t.image.startY)&&t.image.touchesCurrent.yt.image.touchesStart.y)return 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